Just as Louis Braille developed the braille script from the principle that relief on paper can be felt with the fingers, so too the starting point for tactile guiding solutions is that they can be discerned using the feet, hands and ears.
When one suffers from an absence of sight or low vision, other senses are heightened, primarily the sense of touch but also the sense of hearing. Tactile guiding strips and blisters form a relief against the ground and when contact is made with the cane not only produce a vibration in the hand but can also be felt with the feet.
Moreover, they produce a sound different from that of the surrounding pavement. The pattern is recognisable, with the result that users feel more confident and can move around more easily. So simply put, you could also call guiding facilities ‘braille on the ground’.